I basically want to be able to build using the OpenGL ES 1.5 headers and run it on my linux desktop. Can I do this? IE, I want to only use the subset of API calls common between OpenGL and OpenGL-ES.
There is no such thing as OpenGL ES 1.5. Did you mean 1.1 ?
Also, how do you get a window ? This is platform specific.
In any case, you still should compile against the header that corresponds to the lib you will link against. You don't know for sure what the header sets up (e.g. on windows, which you don't care about but still, calling conventions are specified in there).